Books & Software on Environmental Radioactivity and Pesticides
Environmental Research & Publications Inc.
P.O. BOX: 79023, Garth Postal Outlet,
Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, L9C 7N6
140 Golden Orchard Drive,
Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, L9C 6J6
Telephone: (905) 385-8111; Fax: (905) 385-8263; E-mail:email@example.com
Environmental Research & Publications
Inc. is pleased to announce the publication of the new SOFTWARE(2015) and
earlier software (2003, 2013) and books as follows:
DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT AND SEDIMENTATION
RATE IN SEA AND LAKE SEDIMENTS BY (239+240)Pu AND 137Cs PROFILES
(Application of the Fourier Solution of Advection Diffusion Equation (ADE)
with Decay Constant, λi, Where Initial Distribution is Given
by Dirac Delta Function, δ(x-0.0))
Dr. B. S. Shukla, Environmental Consultant
***Pb-210 dating of sediments software(2003) with Addendum(2013)***
***is included with the software (2015)***
ISBN 978-0-9696383-8-4 ; Year 2015;
Guide Booklet: 80pp; 8x11; 8 Figures; 33 Tables; 24 Equations.
CDROM: The folder CSPu15 in the CDROM has 11 sub-folders with 241 files
Price in Canada and USA US $169.00/ outside US $189.00. Taxes and postage by air mail are included
This software(2015) is based on the ADE-PEAK model as earlier described in the book by Shukla (2010).The software(2015) computes both the diffusion coefficient of (239+240)Pu, DPu, and sedimentation rate, VPu, based on (239+240)Pu profile in the sediment core. The software(2015) also computes both the diffusion coefficient of 137Cs, DCs, and sedimentation rate, VCs, based on 137Cs profile in the sediment core. This is the first openly available software based on Fourier solution of ADE with λi. The results obtained by ADE-PEAK model are compared with the results of ADE-NUMERICAL model due to Alperin et al.(2002), Deep -Sea Research II,49, 4645-4665. Both the models are discussed in the guide booklet.
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FEATURES: The software (2015) is very efficient because (a) 20 roots of the transcendental equation are internally generated by bracketing method in a few seconds (b) the domain length, L(cm),based on Fourier-Shukla Length is generated by software (c) the error in the material balance is ± 0.2% which is better than ± 0.4% in ADE-NUMERICAL model. User without any knowledge of Fourier solution and eigenvalues, can run the software with the help of guide booklet. The software (2015) also predicts mixing depth.
Table of Contents of the Guide Booklet
1. Introduction 1
2. Operation of cspudat to prepare data file (1-4)
3.Operation of dela243c to calculate diffusion coefficient, DCs and VCs(4-16)
4. Operation of dela243p and del243c to sea and lake sediment cores (16-28)
5. Diffusion coefficient, sedimentation rate and sediment dating by (239+240)Pu,
137Cs and 210Pb tracers(28-35)
6.Summary and conclusions(35-38)
APPENDIX- A: Solving convergence problem in Fourier solutions of ADE
and development of an efficient software (39-72)
APPENDIX- B: Derivation of ADE solution in finite column for solute
initially distributed as Dirac Delta Function, δ(x-b) (73-76)
SUBJECT INDEX (80)
Technical Requirements: The software(2015) works with Windows XP, 7 and 8 on IBM compatible PC.
Support: The software(2015) is sold with limited support by Fax,
Telephone and E-mail.
MORE ABOUT THE NEW SOFTWARE PACKAGE (2015):
The software (2015) has one C.D.ROM disc marked as ADE-FOURIER(2015) which has all the programs, data and output filles in the folder CsPu15. The folder CSPu15 has 11 sub-folders with 241 files. 80 page guide booklet(2015)describes with examples the operation of the 5 programs, viz., cspudat, dela243c, dela243p,roota26 and dela243. These programs display the results on the screen and the results can also be saved and printed.
In order to authenticate the software(2015), 23 sediment cores are chosen from the different researchers, viz., 10 cores from Alperin et al. (2002) Deep-Sea Research II, 49, 4645-4665; 6 cores from Nagaya et al.(1992) J. of Oceanography vol.48, pp 23-35; 4 cores from Durham et al.(1980) chem. Geol. 31, 53-66; 1 core from Robbins et al.(1975) Geochim Cosmochim. Acta, 39, 285-304; 1 core from Laissaoui et al.(2008) and 1 core from Nie et al.(2001) Limnol Oceanogr.,46(6)1425-1437.
The average values of the DPu and VPu for 10 cores by ADE-NUMERICAL model as reported by Alperin et al.(2002) are 1.025 cm2.yr-1 and 0.0715 cm.yr-1, respectively, but ADE-PEAK values are 0.76225 cm2.yr-1 and VPu = 0.1323 cm.yr-1, respectively. Thus, it can be stated that ADE-NUMERICAL model over estimates the DPu and under estimates the VPu in comparison with ADE-PEAK model.
The results of 6 cores modeled from the works of Nagaya et al.(1992), yielded that DPb > DPu > DCs. Moreover, it is also found that VPb> VCs> VPu. Nagaya et al.(1992) reported that DPb values vary in wide range from 1.4 to 8.3 cm2.yr-1. From the 210Pb dating software (2003, 2013) it is confirmed that DPb values indeed vary in wide range from 0.0001 cm2.yr-1 to 11.00 cm2.yr-1 in these cores. Moreover, based on the modeling of these cores it is also found that higher VPb is associated with higher DPb in a core. But, DPu and DCs in these cores vary in a narrow ranges from 0.30 cm2.yr-1 to 1.79 cm2.yr-1 and 0.29 cm2.yr-1 to 1.05 cm2.yr-1, respectively. From the modeling of 23 sediment cores, the Vi and Di values of (239+240)Pu, 137Cs and 210Pb are now better organized and explained in the Guide Booklet.
ADE-PEAK model is applied to cores due to Robbins et al.(1975) and Nie et al.(2001) to predict mixing depth.
INTENDED SOFTWARE(2015)USERS ARE: scientists, engineers and researchers in the university/research institute, affiliated with the department of geology, hydrology, limnology, civil engineering, environment, marine geology, oceanography, agriculture, nuclear waste, soil physics and mathematics.
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(2) DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT
AND MIXING DEPTH THROUGH
(MODELS AND APPLICATIONS)
ISBN 978-0-9696383-6-0 ; Year 2010; 331pp; 8x11; 45 Figures; 137 Tables; 365 Equations.
Price in Canada and USA US$ 129.00/ outside US$ 149.00. Taxes and postage by air mail are included.
This book deals with the abinitio derivation of advection diffusion equation (ADE) solutions by Fourier transform and applications of the solutions in the computation of biological diffusion coefficient (Dbi) and mixing depth (Lmi) in lake and sea sediment cores. A new model named as ADE-PEAK model is developed. The results of the ADE-PEAK model are compared with the ADE-STAT model due to Guinasso and Schink (1975) J. Geophys. Res. 80,21,3032-3043 and ADE-APPROXIMATE model due to Officer and Lynch (1983) Marine Geology,52,59-74. The theoretical reason and computation results prove that the ADE-STAT model predicts inaccurate values of Lmi and Dbi. It is also proven that ADE-APPROXIMATE model underestimates Lmi and overestimates Dbi.
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It is demonstrated that ADE-PEAK model predicts the most accurate values of Dbi and Lmi. This book also addresses the convergence problem in Fourier solutions as first encountered by Brenner (1962) Chem. Engng. Sci.17, 229-243. This book also addresses an other type of the convergence problem in the application of Fourier solutions, known as Gibbs Phenomenon which occurs at the extremities of the finite length within which the solutions are applicable.
Table of Contents:Chapter 1. OBJECTIVES AND SCOPE OF THE BOOK (1-8)
MORE ABOUT THE NEW BOOK:
In Appendix-A, advection diffusion equation (ADE) with decay constant λi is solved by Fourier transform under various initial and boundary conditions. The methodology is based on the standard text books on heat conduction in solids. Scientists, engineers and researchers with the background in physical chemistry, physics and mathematics can very easily understand the steps involved in the derivation of the ADE solutions. Chapters 2, 3 and 4 are devoted to in depth understanding of the profiles of the various ADE solutions by taking fixed values of diffusion coefficient,Di, and advection velocity, Vi, as 0.182 cm2yr-1 and 0.182 cm.yr-1, respectively. The exactly same values of Di and Vi were earlier used by Cleary and Adrian (1973) Soil Sci.Soc. Amer. Proc. 37, 197-199. The purpose of using the same Di and Vi values is to authenticate their results as well as the results reported in this book. In chapter 2, λi = 0.0311386 yr-1 is used as required for the 210Pb profile, but in chapters 3 and 4, λi = 0.0229747 yr-1 is used as required for 137Cs profile. In chapter 2, convergence problem in Fourier solution as related to the Péclet number, (P = Vi L/Di), is solved by defining a suitable length of a column, Lsp, which is named as Fourier-Shukla length. By applying the principle of material balance, and by using the ADE solutions obtained by Laplace transform, it is proven that ADE solutions obtained by Fourier transform can be applied to any P provided Fourier-Shukla length is satisfied. Lsp is a function of Di, Vi, and travel time t. The convergence problem referred to as Gibbs Phenomenon is addressed with the help of Break Through Curve (BTC).The back calculation of Di and Vi by graphical method from the ADE pulse solution profile, proves that the calculated Di and Vi are time dependent and Di and Vi are not equal to 0.182 which is the input value to produce the profile. In chapter 4, back calculation of Di and Vi by statistical moments (s, µ, S), proves that statistical method under predicts Di and over predicts Vi and the values of Di and Vi are not constants but depend on travel time. In chapter 5, results obtained by ADE-STAT, ADE-APPROXIMATE and ADE-PEAK models are compared and relative merits and demerits are explained. ADE-PEAK model is based on the matching of peak position and peak concentration of the field profile with the theoretical profile. ADE-PEAK model quantifies peak velocity and distinguishes between advection velocity, Vi, and peak velocity, Vp. In chapter 6, ADE-PEAK model is applied to determine Dbi and Lmi based on 239+240Pu and 137Cs profiles. In chapter 6, the model due to Goldberg and Koide (1962) Geochim. et Cosmochim. Acta 26,417-450, is also applied to 210Pb profile to determine Dbi and Lmi.
INTENDED BOOK USERS ARE: scientists, engineers and researchers in the university/research institute, affiliated with the department of geology, hydrology, limnology, civil engineering, environment, marine geology, oceanography, agriculture, nuclear waste, soil physics and mathematics.
(Models and Applications)
Dr. B. S. Shukla, Environmental Consultant
(4) Watershed, River and Lake Modeling through Environmental Radioactivity. ISBN 0-9696383-0-2, 1993, 227pp; 8x11; 168 figures; 38 Tables; 197 equations; By B. S. Shukla, Ph.D.; Price: In Canada & USA US$ 129.00/ Outside US$ 149.00. Taxes and postage by air mail are included. Payment is accepted in both US$ and equivalent Canadian dollars.
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The above book describes the behaviour of pollutants in watershed, surface waters and bottom sediments of lakes and rivers. In the watershed, the removal of pollutant by runoff, soil erosion and infiltration has been discerned, formulated and exemplified. In the lake and river waters, the removal constants by sedimentation, outflow, food-chain, and biota have been discerned, formulated and exemplified. In the bottom sediments, the removal constants and residence times by diffusion and advection have been discerned, formulated and exemplified. Since this book describes the pollutant behaviour in three distinct but connected boxes, viz., the watershed, the river and lake waters, and the bottom sediments of the river and lake; the models are collectively named as 3-BOX model. The concept of branching decay constants has been invoked to define various removal constants and residence times.
This book applies the mathematics of diffusion - advection coupled with the first order rate constant and the general mass balance equations to the fallout and the natural radionuclides present in air, water and soil to predict their transport and accumulation in watershed soil, sediments, waters and biota. This is the first book that concurrently quantifies the removal of pollutants both by runoff and infiltration from watershed soil. The models developed in this book assume an effective surface soil depth in which pollutants are homogeneously distributed as introduced in the publication, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 105(1991) 314-318, co-authored by Dr. B. S. Shukla. The importance of the book can be seen from the comments that appeared in the Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 58:991(1994), 58:1848(1994).
(1) The 3-BOX model has been successfully applied to: (a) alpine Rhône watershed of Switzerland (b) five largest rivers of Finland (c) the Great Miami River of USA and (d) the chain of the Great Lakes. (2) The radionuclides that have been employed in the modeling are: 7Be, 210Pb, 90Sr, 137Cs, and 239+240Pu.
(i) Objectives and scope of the book
(ii) Basic concepts in aquatic modeling
(iii) Mathematics of 3-BOX model of river system
(iv) Application of 7Be and 210Pb in soil erosion
(v) 90Sr, 137Cs and 239+240Pu transport from watershed to river waters
(vi) Application of the 3-BOX model to the Great Lakes.
RELEVANCE OF THE ABOVE BOOK TO NUCLEAR WASTE DISPOSAL
Nuclear research centres throughout the world have been conducting many experimental and theoretical studies on the various aspects of the safe disposal of the high level nuclear waste since the inception of the peaceful uses of the nuclear energy. Nuclear waste forms can be either the spent fuel itself or a glass-ceramics containing the fission products and the a emitters. The waste form will finally have to be put to the rest in a deep geological formation.
The waste form in the geological formation may come in contact with the infiltrating water and release 239+240Pu, 137Cs and 90Sr by leaching processes. The leachate containing 239+240Pu, 137Cs and 90Sr will eventually migrate through aquifer and pollute the charging surface waters. The radioactive contaminants in the surface waters will end up in the food chain through drinking water and fish harvesting. The possibility of food chain contamination by these radionuclides has prompted the development of food chain models and the extensive study on the leaching of these radionuclides from the waste forms.
This book deals with the leaching and migration of 239+240Pu, 137Cs and 90Sr that have been deposited on the soil as a result of atmospheric nuclear weapon testing which peaked during 1963-1964. Significant quantities of weapon produced radionuclides have been falling on the soil and surface waters since 1954 till now. The rain water removes the atmospherically deposited 239+240Pu, 137Cs and 90Sr to surface waters by runoff and to ground waters by infiltration. This book describes the mathematical models and the results of the calculation pertaining to the removal of the atmospherically deposited 239+240Pu, 137Cs and 90Sr from seven watershed soils by rainwater via infiltration and runoff. The book also describes the partitioning of these radionuclides among biota, waters, sediments which in turn will be useful in evaluating the radiation doses to the general public through fish and water consumption. This is the first book that employs the naturally produced 210Pb and 7Be to estimate the soil erosion and other environmental parameters. The book is expected to be useful for the engineers, scientists, managers, and educators working in the field of nuclear waste management, health physics and soil physics, for years to come.
INTENDED BOOK USERS ARE: scientists, engineers and researchers in the university/ research institute affiliated with the departments of nuclear waste, hydrology, civil engineering, environment, agriculture, pesticides, the Great Lakes and limnology.
(5) Transport of Pesticides from Watershed by Volatilization, Infiltration and Runoff( Models and applications). ISBN 0-9696383-2-9, 1996, 187pp; 8x11; 64 figures; 36 Tables; 306 equations; By B. S. Shukla, Ph.D.; Price: In Canada & USA US$ 129.00/ Outside US$ 149.00. Taxes and postage by air mail are included. Payment is accepted in both US$ and equivalent Canadian dollars.
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The above book describes the use of the analytical solutions of the Advection diffusion equation (ADE) involving first order degradation constant (l ), in predicting the transport of pesticides from land to air, sub-surface waters, and surface waters by volatilization, infiltration and runoff, respectively. All the steps involved in the derivation of ADE for unsaturated soil are clearly stated. The method of Laplace transforms in solving the ADE is exemplified under different initial and boundary conditions. The analytical solutions of ADE are applied to explain the break through curves and slug movement of the degrading pollutants. New models have been developed and successfully applied to explain the volatilization of pesticides with low and high values of Henry's Law constant, KH. Equations to estimate l in presence of volatilization are also given. The name 5-Box model implies that pesticides applied on the soil can redistribute themselves among 5 boxes. Box-1, Box-2, Box-3, Box-4 and Box-5 correspond to watershed, surface waters, sediments, sub-surface waters and atmosphere, respectively. The equations and examples given in the book will be useful in initiating and planning new experiments on pollutant transport in the laboratory as well as in the field.
This is a multidisciplinary book. The book applies the mathematics of diffusion -advection coupled with the first order rate constant and the general mass balance equations to predict the transport of pesticides from watershed by volatilization, infiltration and runoff. The models developed in this book can be easily extended to the radioactive pollutants. This is the first book that concurrently quantifies the removal of pollutants by volatilization, infiltration and runoff from the watershed soil. The models developed in this book assume an effective surface soil depth in which pollutants are homogeneously distributed as introduced in the publication, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 105(1991) 314-318, co-authored by Dr. B. S. Shukla and in the book "Watershed, River and Lake Modeling through Environmental Radioactivity, ISBN 0-9696383-0-2, 1993" by Dr. B.S.Shukla. Both the books are complementary to each other and give complete insight into the mathematical modeling of the transport processes that govern the movement of pollutants in natural and laboratory setups.
An addendum is also included with the book. The addendum to the book describes (i) the application of 5-Box screening model to 238 pesticides (ii) new and original equations that correlate % removal of a pesticide by runoff at the edge of field (RE), % removal of the pesticide by runoff at the mouth of the river (RM) in the basin and the ratio (g) of total farmland in the basin to total pesticide application area in the basin and (iii) the importance of the measurement of the frequency of appearance (F.A.) of pesticides in rivers. The new models developed in the addendum have been tested on the field data available in literature pertaining to the Grand, Saugeen and Thames rivers of Ontario, Canada. The predictions made by the models are in excellent agreement with the measured values.
Breakthrough curves, concentration profiles in soil columns, volatilization of low and high KH pesticides, runoff and slug movements. 61 Pesticides have been arranged in the ascending order of their Koc/t1/2 ratio and have been evaluated by various screening models.
(i) Objectives and Scope of the Book
(ii) Mathematics of 5-BOX Model
(iii) Research Models with Applications
(iv) Screening Models with Applications
(v) Future Research and Modeling Needs
(vi) Appendix-A: Derivation of advection diffusion equation (ADE) for unsaturated soil.
(vii) Appendix-B: Solutions of the ADE by Laplace Transforms.
(viii) Appendix-C: A few solutions of the ADE.
MORE ABOUT THE ABOVE BOOK
Pesticides have been playing the vital role in the augmentation of agri-food production. There is need to produce more agri-food to cope up with the growing world population. Pesticides will remain an essential part of the modern agriculture and, therefore, their transport from agricultural fields to surface waters, groundwater and air has to be monitored and fully understood. The research into the transport of pesticide by volatilization, infiltration and runoff is in evolutionary state. Both the theoretical and experimental works are not yet well organized as in the other fields of science. This book aims at providing the sound theoretical background for the subject which in turn is required to conduct future laboratory and field studies on the pesticide transport in the environment. The important results described in the book are as follows.
(1) The analytical solutions of ADE to predict BTC, slug movements and concentration profiles of pesticides in an unsaturated soil are fully explained. (2) The profiles of slug having different Di, Vi and l i are compared with the normal distribution curve and interesting results are obtained. (3) Volatilization of low Henry's constant, KH, pesticides is objectively explained based on the thin pesticide rich soil surface layer rather than on the presence of a stagnant thin air layer on the soil surface as assumed previously by other authors. In absence of advection, the cumulative volatilization of soil incorporated pesticide is shown to be proportional to Ö Di/Ö l i ratio, and, therefore, the volatilization behaviour should be assessed by Di, Vi and l i and not by KH which generally contributes very little to Di and Vi. (4) Equation is derived to make correction for volatilization loss while determining the degradation constant in laboratory. The two slopes observed in the pesticide decay curve in laboratory study are explained and formulated. It is shown that in the field scenario, pesticide is lost by infiltration, volatilization, runoff and degradation and, therefore, the t1/2 values determined from the field study are low and unreliable. (5) Many new equations are derived under research and screening models. (6) Pesticides are arranged according to the ascending order of their Koc (mlg-1)/t1/2(days) ratio and it is shown that pesticides with Koc/t1/2 ³ 20 are not threat to air, water and soil pollution. However, pesticides with Koc/t1/2 £ 20 should be judged on the basis of organic matter content in the soil and rain fall in the region.(7) Appendices A, B, C, and D give all about ADE, its analytical solutions and the computer program to compute erf(x), erfc(x) and eAerfc(x).
INTENDED BOOK USERS ARE: scientists, engineers, and researchers in the university/research institute, affiliated with the departments of pesticides, hydrology, civil engineering, environment, agriculture, nuclear waste, soil physics and mathematics.
(6)SOFTWARE(2003),ADDENDUM (2013):Pb-210 Dating of Sediments :(Sedimentation Rate through Environmental Radioactivity: Part-I): ISBN 0-9696383-5-3, 2003-2013; By B. S. Shukla, Ph.D.; In Canada & USA US$ 129.00/ Outside US$ 149.00. Taxes and postage by air mail are included. Payment is accepted in both US$ and equivalent Canadian dollars.
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The software developed in 2003 is expanded by including a 15 page ADDENDUM (2013). Now the C.D.Rom (2003) has two folders Pbdates and Pbdates3 on it. The C.D.Rom(2003) has also the ADDENDUM (2013) file in PDF format on it. Both the folders Pbdates and Pbdates3 have application programs coredat2 and corecal2 to compute the Pb-210 dates and related parameters by five models, viz., Constant Initial Concentration(CIC), Constant Rate of Supply (CRS), Advection Diffusion Equation(ADE), Porosity Variation (PV), and Porosity Variation Without Diffusion (PVWD) models. However, Pbdates3 folder has two additional application programs vmaxd3 and vid3, based on ADE model, to calculate 210Pb diffusion coefficient in the sediment core. The user guide booklet (2003) describes all the programs, their operation, mathematical background and interpretation of the results. However, ADDENDUM(2013) describes only four application programs: coredat2, corecal2, vmaxd3 and vid3 which are more than sufficient for computing all the results given in guide booklet(2003).Operation of these four programs given in Pbdates3 folder, is fully described in ADDENDUM (2013) but briefly summarized as follows.
(1) coredat2: This program is used to create data file for 210Pb profile in the sediment core. Data file can be corrected by WordPerfect-12 or Notepad and then saved as a file with .txt extension which is compatible with the program corecal2. The number of slices in the core must be 35 or less, because corecal2 is programmed to process a data file which has 35 or less 210Pb data points.
(2) corecal2: The operation of this program is very well documented in users guide booklet (2003) and in ADDENDUM (2013).
(3) vmaxd3 and vid3: These programs calculate diffusion coefficient of 210Pb based on ADE model. The operation of these programs is completely described in ADDENDUM (2013). The sedimentation rate by 137Cs profile is correct or incorrect can be easily proven with the help of program vid3. For six cores in which 137Cs and 210Pb profiles are known, it is found that the 137Cs diffusion coefficient, DCs (cm2.yr-1), varies from 0.75 to 0.02 whereas the 210Pb diffusion coefficient, DPb (cm2.yr-1) varies from 0.14 to 0.0002. Thus, DCs/DPb ranges from 5.36 to 100. The preceding DCs/DPb ratio has theoretical justification as given in the ADDENDUM (2013) .
(1) Calculates (a) 210Pb dates, relative uncertainty in dates and variable sedimentation rates and all other parameters based on the 5 models (b) diffusion coefficient by ADE and PV models (2) Results are immediately displayed on the screen and stored in a file to get hard copy (3) Examples to prepare data file, to run the programs and to interpret the results. (4)The application program vid3 described in the addendum(2013) is used to calculate almost exact value of diffusion coefficient of 210Pb in sediment cores and results are compared with other models that compute diffusion coefficient of 210Pb. (5) Suitable for both research and routine uses.
Copy Pbdates3 folder from CD-ROM drive to C: drive or USB: drive. The application programs coredat2, corecal2, vmaxd3 and vid3 are run from CD-ROM drive or C: drive or USB drive by Windows XP, 7 and 8 on IBM compatible PC. The data files and result files are to be written on the C: drive or USB: drive. The steps involved in running of the programs are fully explained in the Addendum (2013).
TECHNICAL SUPPORTThe package is sold with limited support by Fax, telephone and E-mail.